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Overview of Liaoning Province

Liaoning Province is located in the southern part of China’s Northeast, bordering the Bohai Gulf and Yellow Sea to the south and the Korean Peninsula to the southeast. In the southeast, the Yalu River and the city of Dandong demarks the Liaoning/North Korean border, across which 70 percent of all official trade between China and North Korea passes.

Major Cities

Capital: Shenyang

Others: Anshan, Benxi, Dandong, Dalian, Fushun, Huludao, Jinzhou, Liaoyang, Tieling, Yingkou

Population

In 2012, Liaoning's population was 43.89 million. Ethnic minorities (e.g Koreans, Mongolians, Manchus, Hui, Xibo) make up about 16 percent of the population.

Political Leaders

Party Secretary: Wang Min 王珉
Governor: Chen Zhenggao 陈政高
Vice Party Secretary: Xu Weiguo 许卫国
Deputy Governor: Zhou Zhongxuan 周忠轩
Vice Governors
        He Min 贺旻
        Tan Zuojun 谭作钧
        Bing Zhigang 邴志刚
        Zhao Huaming 赵化明
        Xue Heng 薛恒
        Liu Qiang 刘强
        Pan Liguo 潘立国
CPPCC Chairman: Xia Deren 夏德仁
Communist Youth League Secretary: Tian Ye田野

Party Secretary of Shenyang: Zeng Wei 曾维
Mayor of Shenyang: Chen Haibo 陈海波

Economic Overview

Liaoning’s GDP reached 2,480.13 billion RMB (roughly 413.36 billion USD) in 2012, with a GDP growth rate of 12.6 percent, higher than China’s overall growth rate in 2012 of 10.1 percent. Liaoning’s GDP represents 49% of northeast China’s GDP, and Liaoning is the most industrialized and prosperous of the three northeastern provinces.

In 2003, the Central Government launched the "Revitalize the Northeast" plan, in part to further reform and privatize SOEs. Liaoning province has benefited significantly from this initiative. The province’s revitalization plan focused on the development of seven basic industrial sectors: shipbuilding, automobile production, transportation infrastructure, equipment manufacturing, steel, petrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals.

Liaoning has the largest variety of manufacturing industries in China, including machine tools, metallurgy, transformers, petrochemicals, iron & steel, and crude oil. Well-established industries in the province include automobile parts and manufacturing, modern construction, agriculture products and processing, chemicals, and steel and nonferrous metals processing. Emerging industries include advanced equipment manufacturing, IT, biopharmaceuticals, aviation, new materials, and energy and environmental technologies.

The capital city Shenyang, together with six mid-sized surrounding cities, is expanding into a “Greater Shenyang” region. In China’s Twelfth Five Year Plan, the development of the Shenyang Economic Zone was indicated as a national priority. The zone covers 8 large cities and 7 smaller cities.

Liaoning is the gateway to Northeast China and Inner Mongolia. Coastal city Dalian, with the biggest port in northeast China, has been selected by the central government to be developed into a transportation hub for Northeast Asia. Dalian also plays the leading role in the coastal economic development of the province. The regional development of Liaoning’s coastal economic belt is specifically mentioned in China’s Twelfth Five Year Plan, building on the Eleventh Five Year Plan, which outlined Liaoning’s “Five Points, One Line” development project, aimed at accelerating the development of five key industrial areas and providing interconnectivity between Liaoning’s coastal cities through the construction of a single road.

Liaoning is the northeast regional leader in international trade. In 2012, total foreign trade reached 103.99 billion USD, 46 billion of which was imports. In addition, utilized FDI reached 26. 8 billion USD, ranking second place out of all Chinese provinces. The value of trade with the United States in 2012 was roughly 11.8 billion USD. Many major American companies, such as General Motors, Goodyear, Pfizer, General Electric, IBM, Wal-Mart, and Coca-Cola have invested in Liaoning.

2012 GDP per capita: RMB 56,547

GDP Composition by Sector:
        Agriculture: 8.7%
        Industry: 53.8%
        Services: 37.5%

Main Products: automobiles, heavy machinery, machine tools, oil, metal, petrochemical

Exports: electro-mechanical products, steel, processed agricultural products, Hi-Tech products, garments, refined oil

Main Export Destinations: Japan, EU, South Korea, U.S.

Imports: electro-mechanical products, crude oil, coal, agricultural products, iron ore

Main Import Sources: EU, Japan, South Korea, Saudi, US, Australia

Natural Resources: iron, magnesium, boron, petroleum, coal, shale oil

Arable Land: 15,830 square miles

Commercial Opportunities

U.S. companies can likely find export opportunities in Liaoning in machine tools, specialty steel manufacturing equipment, petrochemical refinery technology, and power generation equipment. Other areas of potential export interest are management of water resources; treatment of wastewater, solid and hazardous waste; and reduction of sulphur dioxide in manufacturing and power generation. Other emerging industries include IT and software, biopharmaceuticals, aviation, new materials, energy and environmental technologies, and advanced equipment manufacturing. The province is also focused on port upgrades and promoting outbound investment.

Education

As of 2011, Liaoning has 122 colleges and universities, 22 adult colleges, 484 secondary vocational schools, 422 high schools, 1,637 junior secondary schools, 5,118 primary schools, and 8,661 kindergartens.

Prominent universities and university-level institutes in Liaoning include:

Shenyang: Northeast University, Liaoning University, China Medical University, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang Space and Aviation University, Shenyang Conservatoire, Luxun Academy of Fine Art, Shenyang Athletic University

Dalian: Dalian University of Industry and Technology, Northeast University Finance and Economy , Liaoning Normal, Dalian Medical University, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian Foreign Language Studies.